THE ODYSSEY OF JOYCE’S ULYSSES

SYLVIA BEACH

The book is entitled The Paris Bookseller. The author, Kerri Maher. It’s a rather insipid, if accurate title, I think, for a novel about the literary event of the twentieth century. I’ve had my struggles handling this epic novel. Its obvious excellence often outdistances my understanding. As for its successor, Finnegan’s Wake, I confess bewilderment. A terrible thing for an English major to say, I suppose, but that’s the way it is. On the other hand, I’ve been enthralled with A Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man from the first moment I touched it, so I do have some creds. However, of the effort it took to bring Ulysses to readers, I was close to completely ignorant. I knew it ran into censors and legal challenges and that there was enormous opposition to its publication, but I had no idea. I thank Kerri Maher for this engaging, painful, exciting, and often heart-rending tale.

Though Joyce and Ulysses are seemingly at the heart of the story, the novel is multilayered. It opens with young Sylvia Beach and her first visit as an adult to Paris in post WWI. She hasn’t been there since her family had spent some time there when she was a young girl, but in her heart she never left. She’s smart, well-read, and eager for adventure. She’s also a lesbian. This was a heady mixture for someone from sex-repressed America and who was of a revolutionary frame of mind and ready for adventure and romance.

She soon fell in with the literary crowd that frequented the left bank of the era. Hemingway, Dos Passos, Joyce, and a flock of others became her everyday companions. The atmosphere was bilingual, and she soon became enamored of the notion that she might do well to open a bookstore that catered to the English-speaking crowd that was part of the literary mix. Thus was born Shakespeare and Company, sponsored largely by Adrenne Monnier, who was Sylvia’s lover and the owner of a French bookstore that was already famous among the literati.

All well and good, but what about the Ulysses connection? It happened this way: In the midst of composing his epic, Joyce was having a hard time finding a publisher. He and Sylvia had become close friends as well as colleagues by this time. So, Adrienne and Sylvia cooked up a scheme whereby Sylvia would publish this work by a man they loved who wrote the prose they thought would reshape English literature.

We all know the result of their labors, but if you’re as ignorant as I was, what it took to reach the result is astounding. Thus, the layers I spoke of came into play. Sexism, selfishness, betrayal, misogyny, and greed all became characters in the ugly and thrilling drama that unfolded over many years. The book was finally published in 1922. By that time a pirated edition had emerged, which cut into sales and royalties. In the U.S., the case went all the way to the supreme court despite the fact that the book had appeared in various versions all over the world.

I’ll leave it to you to read the book and discover how Sylvia Beach, the original publisher, editor, and mentor of Joyce and his work fared amid all this sturm und drang. If not for her endurance and sensitivity, the story of Ulysses would likely have ended quite differently. Cream rises to the top? Don’t believe it. Not automatically. It needs a lot of help. Thank goodness, in this case, it got what it needed. Of course, the effect on other writers and readers that succeeded the 1922 group is incalculable. And, despite it all, Sylvia lived a rich and relatively long life. When she died 1n 1962 at the age of seventy five, she was still in Paris, still the proprietor of Shakespeare and Company, still unheralded in comparison to all that every reader and writer owes her right down to present day.

JAMES JOYCE

BEHIND THE BOOTH

John Wilkes Booth is perhaps the most famous assassin in history, certainly the most theatrical. His killing of Abraham Lincoln in the Ford Theater on April 14, 1865, not only marked the downfall of one of the most important and well-known men since, say, Julius Caesar, but changed the course of a nation.

As author Karen Joy Fowler asserts in her afterword, so much has been written about the event and its perpetrator that there is no need to add to his individual legend or further lionize the murderer by focusing on his story alone. She has chosen instead to zero in on the Booth family and to tell the tale of Wilkes’ (A stage name he gave himself for a time) people. it was a tough challenge. “How to write a book about john Wilkes a book without centering on John Wilkes. It was a is something I grappled with on nearly every page.” To my mind she succeeds superbly.

In the pages of we get Booth get tales of those who knew him, nurtured him, reviled him from his 1838 birth to the day he committed one of history’s most notorious crimes. And beyond. She tells the tale vividly and powerfully. There are plenty of stories connected with the wild personalities of the Booth family without putting John in the foreground. In fact, she puts him largely in the wings, which creates a wonderful suspense for the reader. When will the main character in this drama appear to perform his horrible deed? He steps out for an episode or two, then disappears for a while, then he repeats the process.

JOHN WILKES BOOTH
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Booth’s family was large, complex, and chaotic. He was considered illegitimate because his father was a bigamist, having married in England, then again in America, without bothering with a divorce. Despite his unsavory past, father Junius was a renowned Shakespearean actor. He was so revered that Walt Whitman wrote “there are no more actors” as part of a post-mortem tribute. In addition to his on-stage fame, Junius was a dominating personality who held sway over his family even considering his many and extended touring/performing absences. His fame was such that his sons all aspired to match his accomplishments. Only one, Edwin, managed to make a theatrical name for himself. The others, including John Wilkes, attained mainly the pater’s reputation for carousing and whoring and drinking (This last was common to the whole lot of them.) Still, lacking though he might have been as an actor, John was handsome and magnetic. Attach those qualities to his father’s famous name, he managed to garner many stage engagements and make a bit of a name for himself. It was that notoriety that contributed to his ability to walk into Ford Theater and past the (rather lackluster) security precautions and fire a bullet straight into the president’s brain.

Fowler tells the story with wit and great narrative skill, delivering telling descriptions that reveal both character and condition with eloquence and economy. Of a relative’s family’s unwelcome appearance at the Booth doorway, she writes:

Mother opens the door and lets them all into the house. The seven strange children have runny noses and blistered feet. Drops of rain are beaded on their greasy hair and streaking their cheeks. They smell awful.

Or take this description of one of John Wilkes sister’s reaction to the news of their father’s bigamy:

The way Rosalie sees it, pretty much everyone in London was abandoning their wives to run away with their sweethearts around the time that father met Mother. It seems to have been quite the fad. Sodom and Gomorrah with tea.

The Booth family was bred primarily, though not exclusively, in Maryland, close to those who were fierce advocates of slavery. Even though Maryland never officially joined the confederacy, there was no lack of enthusiasm for secession among the populace. John Wilkes was among the those who saw slavery as a benign institution which benefited both Negroes and whites and was very nearly the most important institution on which American was founded. Given those beliefs and his attraction toward dramatic and extremist notions, it was in hindsight nearly inevitable that he would enter into the kind of conspiracy that he joined on that April night. The rest of the Booths were loyal to their brother and son, but none of them held the fervent attachment to what became known as the “Lost Cause.” They were much more devoted to art and family than to politics.

It is that nearly apolitical tendency among the Booths that makes Fowler’s account of what led to John Wilkes’ great crime special. He became a radical not by any single political or social conviction, but by virtue of the political environment that surrounded him and of his his volatile personality. He never could stand to be ignored or bested and he always considered himself destined to do something great for which he would always be remembered.

He succeeded, of course. And Fowler succeeded as well in her aim “to write a book about john Wilkes a book without centering on John Wilkes.”

KAREN JOY FOWLER

JANET CARE CALENDAR

THIS CALENDAR PROVIDES A SNAPSHOT OF THE SCHEDULE FOR CARETAKERS, NURSES AND AIDS PROVIDING HELP FOR JANET.

LOTS OF PEOPLE COMIMG IN. TRUST THIS WILL ALL WORK OUT OKAY AND THAT I’VE SCHEDULED EVERYONE ACCURATELY. 

NOTE THAT ON APRIL 6, FELITA IS ON DUTY AND GEOFF IS OFF. HIS CHOICE. ON TUES. APRIL 7, FELITA IS ON DUTY DURING THE DAY, BUT GEOFF WILL STILL BE AVAILABLE AS MUCH AS HE WANTS OR NEEDS TO BE. FELITA WILL DO SOME EXTRA HOUSECLEANING, THEN GO HOME AT DAY’S END AND GEOFF WILL TAKE OVER ALL CARETAKING DUTIES FOR THE REST OF HIS STAY. 

 

 

JANETCARE415

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INDIA SOJOURN 11

OUT OF LIVING STONE

IMG_0675Gather round folks it’s time for another deity tale. This one is from one of our very first stops in the tour, Mamallapuram.

As everyone knows, all the waters in the earth flow from the milky way; and, reciprocally, humans can attain heaven by climbing the watery stair from down here to up there.

Once upon a time some demon or another drank up all the waters on earth, which left humans in pretty bad shape both physically and spiritually, as you can imagine.

Also, as everyone knows, Lord Brahma is the god who controls the milky way waters. Someone went to him for help, which he said he’d be glad to provide, except that if he turned the waters loose they’d come down with such force they’d break the earth to pieces. Quite a dilemma. But our old friend, Siva, came to the rescue. He told Brahma to go ahead and release the waters, and he’d answer for the results.

Thus, he stood underneath the great stream from up above and caught the water on the crown of his head. From there, it streamed down his hair, out his dreadlocks, and bathed the entire earth once again in life-giving liquid, and the world was saved. The main stream, of course, was the mighty Ganges, which is why it’s so sacred today.

In the 8th or 9th century, one of the kings in the Mamallapuram area decided to commission a bas-relief of this tale, carved in the face one of the great series of granite boulders that abound in the region.

He (or someone) selected a cleft in the rock as the symbolic route for the Ganges, and they set to work. The result is a magnificent sculpture, exquisite in design and execution, which not only depicted the story, but paid homage to Siva as he savior of the locals (and, of course, everyone else.) It didn’t hurt matters that it was easy to draw political as well as religious inferences by assuming that the king as well as Siva was the savior and protector of those under his reign. Since people believed (believe) that all natural substances, organic or not, are inhabited by gods, the sculptors believed the granite out which they were carving their tale was a virtual living being, that they were working with living rock. We didn’t get a photo showing the whole sweep of this saga that gave enough detail to deliver its impact in this setting. It’s marvelous to see the fluidity of the people and animals rushing toward the live-giving cleft where the Ganges flows.

IMG_0678However, the detail above of a mother elephant protecting her young and that here of a deer lying down with a lion should help show how wonderful was the land Siva (religious) or the king (political) created for the benefit of his subjects.

As a closer, though, we present the battle between the goddess Dorgan (left-center, riding a lion, bow drawn) and a buffalo god whose name I can’t recall.

There are lots of other demons but focus if you can on Dorgan and the Buffalo. The sculpture catches the battle at the moment when the buffalo is about to go down, which he will, Dorgan’s foot on his head, because that’s how Indian gods treat their defeated enemies. The relief is much smaller and I hope this photo of the battle gives some appreciation of the life with which these ancient artists invested this supposedly inert granite and helped render this heavenly battle in living stone.

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india sojourn 9

TEMPLE RUN 

What an unfun blogslog it would be to conduct a didactic step-by-step tour of each Hindu temple we’ve visited. Not going to happen here, so it’s safe to keep reading.

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You don’t need a doctorate to tell a lot about the Hindus just by looking at the outside of the temples.

 

IMG_1127They like color. The paint on the reliefs and statues is vivid and riotous. They’re not afraid of humor. Ganesh, for example, the elephant-head god (that’s worth a chuckle right there.) is a laughing big eater with a belly to match. There are comical guys with big mustaches and swords and stomachs to match guarding the gods. And the sensuality is rampant, with the standard goddess possessed of big boobs and hips and slim waists, often dressed in jeweled belts that take a triangular dive under the belly pointing to, ahem,  (all designed by men, of course), and the ability to assume the most outrageous poses.

 

And The gods consort with animals a lot.

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Unknown-1You can tell there’s a wide pantheon of gods, each of whom has a wide variety of arms to carry out its functions and use its powers effectively.Unknown-2

 

 

 

 

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Hindus like their temples big when they can get them that way, though many, many lesser temples are scattered around the countryside. The temples are more than houses of worship. They are community centers. Parks. Social and economic engines for their communities. Muslim and Hindu families both gather for recreation and socializing. The temples sacred on the one hand and public monuments with purpose for everyone in the community on the other.

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Inside, though, it’s a different story. You won’t find a wide open space of the kind that typifies a standard mosque, nor will you find the ordered, focused architecture of a Christian cathedral, designed to raise your eyes and soul forward and upward to the cross and to the heavens and the priest. Imagine a Christian cathedral with no main altar, no grand windows, no elegant pillars topped with gold leaf, and no pews.

Instead, you get raw stone, often smoky with the fires of centuries. Instead of little chapels tucked away neatly in alcoves at the sides of the nave, you get chapels scattered throughout a maze of hallways. Within the chapels, the image/statue of the god it represents is often tucked so far back from the hallway that you can hardly make it out, the idea being that ordinary mortals wouldn’t be able to stand looking it in the eye. And I have no pictures to offer here because they weren’t allowed.

People make offerings of flowers, money, etc. The priests carry it to the altar. Rituals are performed several times per day, and multiple services may be going on simultaneously, even at the smaller temples, like the one dedicated to the dangerous goddess Kali, whose temples always sit outside a city because it’s too risky to have her close by.

Of the several rituals at the several temples we’ve seen, the most extraordinary one took us quite close because of a connection our tour leader has with one of the monks. It was a homage to the god Siva, the destroyer. The statue itself sat well back as described above, and several priests focused on the lingam, or phallic representation of the god, carved out of pure crystal. It sat in a yonic receptacle of the female the god’s female aspect. They chanted and sang and danced, seemingly moving without order, but always with purpose, pouring libations, smashing coconuts and scattering the shells and milk here and there as sacrifices.

At one point, the priests drew a curtain, did a lot of chanting behind it, then they opened the curtain, and there the lingam was, covered in rice. They passed the rice around among them, each of them taking a few grains in his mouth, including one young lady who seemed to be present as an observer. That done, they abluted the object some more, then lighted a fire in a dish, which they took back to the chamber which housed the god-image. They passed the fire in a circle near the statue several times, investing the fire with holy strength then returned to the assembled and passed the fire among us. We each passed our hands through it and placed hands on our face, investing ourselves with the spirit. After that, we received from a priest a mark of ash on our foreheads, then a red dot. White for cool, red for heat, or semen and blood, respectively. Then bells rang deafeningly and chanting continued.

IMG_0774our priest friend showed us around, one stop being the temple bath–a huge pool for the faithful to gather in and purify themselves. it was such a big pond there were fish in it. He was an extremely nice man, who blessed us again and wished us long life and peace. As we walked, other services continued around us. He conducts the service six times a day, the number being no accident, but I don’t recall the reason. In fact, if Martin, our tour guide, hadn’t prepared us with stories and lectures before we entered, we would have found the whole thing completely chaotic and could have made no sense of it whatsoever. I’m sure others who were there would describe the whole event entirely differently. Apparently, that’s the idea. Both the Hindu architecture and the service are supposed to take you out of your comfort zone, unsettle you, and turn your head and soul around, and leave you inspired in some totally new way.

Mission accomplished.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Friday, 9 January – Swamimalai

 

 

 

Thanjavur (Tanjore)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Monday and Tuesday, 12 and 13 January – Chettinad (Karaikudi)

 

 

 

 

 

 

KARAIKUDI SOUTH INDIA, TAMILNADU

SOUTH INDIA: TAMIL NADU’S TEMPLE CITIES, KERALA’S BACKWATERS and SPICE COUNTRY at Pongal Festival Time

A Cultural Heritage Trip with Carol and Martin Noval

5 to 25 January 2015

 

Itinerary:

 

Monday, 5 January – Chennai (Madras)

A car and driver will meet you on your arrival at the Chennai International airport. Check-in time for the trip will be at 12 noon on 5 January. We will meet for lunch at noon and after lunch we will tour the historic Fort area with its fabulous British Raj period buildings. We will stroll in the neighborhood of the Kapileshwar Temple, a traditional “village” in the heart of Chennai. In the late afternoon-evening, we will attend an Indian classical music or dance performance.

Residency Towers Hotel

 

Please note: as most international flights arrive in India in the late night/early morning you may want to arrive in Chennai by the night of 4/5 January. We can arrange extra nights for you in our Chennai hotel.

Tuesday and Wednesday, 6 and 7 January – Mamallapuram

A pleasant 2-hour drive on the coastal highway brings us to Mamallapuram. More than 2000 years ago, Mamallapuram, on India’s southeast coast, was already a famous seaport, but it was in the mid-7th century AD during the rule of the kings Mahendravarman and Mamalla I of the Pallava dynasty that the town became the base for the export of Indian culture to Southeast Asia and a hub of commerce in the flourishing Indian Ocean trade. And it was also in that century that numerous monuments were built, or rather carved out of the boulders that abound in this area; they include caves, monolithic temples and large sculpted reliefs. Mamallapuram is a stone city cut from living rock. The vibrancy and animation of the art created here during the Pallava ascendancy is unsurpassed anywhere. Most impressive and unforgettable is a giant sculptural relief that is so perfectly ambivalent it can be interpreted to represent two entirely different mythological tales. 100 feet long, it teems with human, animal and plant figures all in life size.

 

We attend an outdoor dance performance performed against the backdrop of the monolithic relief of the “Descent of the Ganges.”

GRT Temple Bay Resort, on the beach

 

Thursday, 8 January – Chidambaram

Pondicherry, a one-time French colonial outpost, lies on our route. The town still retains a dash of Gallic character, but with an Indian flavor, a charming cultural incongruity. We’ll have a look at the town when we stop there for lunch en route to Chidambaram.

 

“I could never believe in a god who doesn’t dance,” said a famous 19th-century Western philosopher. Chidambaram is the home of Dancing Shiva – Nataraja, the king of dancers. Enclosed by four concentric walls pierced by monumental gateways, teeming with sculptures of gods, demons and sundry celestial beings, the temple contains innumerable shrines, an enormous ritual bathing tank, a thousand-pillared hall (where musicians perform) and vast colonnaded corridors. Within the innermost enclosure, the “palace” of the dancing god is a gold-roofed pavilion. We are escorted in the temple by a member of the clan of hereditary Dikshitar priests, and have special access to secret recesses of the temple.

Vandayar Hotel

 

Friday, 9 January – Swamimalai

Morning visit to the Kali Aman Temple in Chidambaram, an awesome image of Kali is the central object of worship. It’s a 2-hour drive from Chidambaram to Swamimalai. After lunch it’s a half-hour drive to Kumbakonam. Built around a large water pool containing a few drops of the nectar of immortality, the town is famous for its Chola dynasty temples, one of them containing masterpieces of 9th-century stone sculpture on the walls of its sanctuary — beautiful, elegant and so life-like they appear to stand free of their wall niches. Another temple has a gigantic stone Vishnu reclining on a serpent sofa and floating on the cosmic ocean as he prepares once again to create the world, and a wonderful 11-story gateway covered in polychromatic mythical figures.

Mantra Veppathur Resort

 

Saturday and Sunday, 10 and 11 January – Thanjavur (Tanjore)

Visit a bronze workshop in Swamimalai where sacred images are fashioned using the lost-wax process, exactly as they were 1200 years ago. After lunch drive to Thanjavur. The main town in the Kaveri (Cauvery) River delta, Tamil Nadu’s rice bowl, Thanjavur was the 11th-century capital of the greatest Chola king, Rajaraja I. Here he built the Brihadesvara temple, South India’s major architectural monument. Completed with a great concentration of effort in an amazingly short time (seven years at the beginning of the 11th century), this towering structure has over its central sanctum a pyramidal stone “vimana” that rises in 14 tiers to more than 200 feet. Its cupola is an 80-ton block of granite that was hauled to the top of the tower along a 4-mile long earthen ramp. When it was built, this temple was probably the world’s largest building. A huge monolithic Nandi — Shiva’s bull vehicle — crouches outside the temple’s entrance and gazes devotedly at the gigantic Shiva lingam that is the temple’s main object of worship. Stone sculptures three times life size fill niches in the temple’s outer walls. Set amid beautiful lawns in a spacious compound, the changing colors of the buildings at dusk are magical. Here, of an evening, the people of Thanjavur gather on the lawns to socialize and enjoy the ambience of the nighttime illumination. At the entrance, an elephant blesses devotees, gently tapping them on the head with his trunk.

Hotel Parisutham

 

Monday and Tuesday, 12 and 13 January – Chettinad (Karaikudi)

Driving through ageless countryside, we stop at an out-of-the-way cave temple set among massive boulders. Karaikudi is a traditional town dominated by the Chettiars, one of India’s closest-knit and wealthiest business communities. When ancient Tamil kingdoms colonized Southeast Asia, it was the Chettiars who dominated trade, finance and banking; their business connections spread throughout India and as far afield as China. In Karaikudi and the villages around it, the Chettiars established their estates, constructing opulent mansions, which were inhabited by the Chettiar women and children while the men were away pursuing their fortunes; nowadays, these houses are used for only a few weeks each year when families gather for reunions. The houses are built with Burmese teak doors, thresholds and pillars, and floored with unique locally-made tiles. We will visit a few of the outstanding ones and a tile factory where special hand-made tiles are made; we’ll also visit weavers who produce the distinctive cotton cloth of the region on wooden looms.

We stay in the Bangala, a delightful renovated art deco “club house,” where the leading lights of the community met when they were in town; it is still operated by members of the family that built it, and the food is authentic Chettinad cuisine, some of the most delicious regional food of India.

 

Wednesday, 14 January – Madurai

Established by a king of the Pandya dynasty in the 6th century BC, the city’s name means “nectar,” for here a few drops of the elixir of immortality fell from the god Shiva’s locks when he came here to marry Minakshi, the fish-eyed goddess. Indeed, the temple here, India’s second largest, was built to celebrate that marriage.

 

The temple complex has 11 massive gateways. Rising from high granite bases, the tapering brick and stucco superstructures swarm with life-size colorful sculpted figures. Actually a twin temple, one sanctuary is dedicated to Shiva, here called Sundaresvara (the beautiful god), and the other to his consort, Minakshi. Within the walls is a huge tank (the tank of the golden lilies) surrounded by steps and a pillared portico. The long and enormous pillared corridors, halls and shrine areas of the temple contain a bewildering array of heavily ornamented monumentally sculpted figures that dwarf the devotees. Although carved from hard granite, the rendering of detail is exquisite and each figure has its own character and individuality. For such a vast project, an incredible standard of artistic excellence has been maintained throughout the complex.

 

Temples in Tamil Nadu are more than simply places of worship but major centers of economic, social, cultural and religious life, virtually cities in themselves with market places, banks and orchestras; and in Madurai, the markets overflow the temple compound into the streets and lanes, which surround the temple like petals around a lotus’s center.

GRT Residency

 

Thursday, Friday and Saturday, 15, 16 and 17 January – Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary

From Madurai, we drive through lush farmland and plantations up into the hills of Kerala. Like many of India’s wildlife sanctuaries, Periyar too belonged to a maharaja, but with a difference. The raja abhorred hunting from the start, and when an English hunter killed an elephant (a sacred animal for Hindus) on his land, the raja declared a ban on hunting, thereby creating India’s first wildlife preserve. In addition, the British constructed a dam across the Periyar River flooding the lower reaches of the raja’s forests, but at the same time creating a vast lake and making Periyar Sanctuary wonderfully picturesque. For the animals, the lake provides a perennial supply of water and the forest, a protective cover. In the park there are herds of elephants, Indian bison, monkeys, wild dogs, otters, deer, sloth bears, giant and flying squirrels, flying lizards, snakes and tigers too, as well as an array of birds including hornbills, kingfishers, cormorants and darters.

We view wildlife comfortably from a small launch and on walks in the forest. The area around Periyar is the heart of the spice-growing region and we visit a spice garden and see how spices are grown in harmony with the natural surroundings. We have a home-cooked lunch at the owner’s home.

Aranya Nivas Lodge, right inside the park.

 

Sunday and Monday, 18 and 19 January – Alapuzha (Alleppy) and the Backwaters

Kerala’s backwaters were formed by deposits of sand and silt — brought down the mountains by Kerala’s numerous rivers — in long banks parallel to the Arabian Sea.

We stay at a backwaters resort and cruise the backwaters by houseboat and country boat. We explore the quaint village on foot and visit an ancient goddess temple. Here people live their lives on the canals; coconut trees border vast green rice paddies, which lie below water level; we have the strange sensation of boating above the land.

Emerald Isle Heritage Backwaters Resort

 

Tuesday and Wednesday, 20 and 21 January – Kochi (Cochin)

Kerala’s spices lured to its ports the ships of the Phoenicians, King Solomon, the Selucid Syrians, the Ptolomies of Egypt, Greeks, Arabs, Romans and Chinese. Vasco da Gama, after rounding South Africa’s Cape of Good Hope, landed midway along Kerala’s coast at Calicut (which gave its name to the cotton fabric we know as Calico) in 1498. The local ruler, the Zamorin, was very forthright: “In my country there is an abundance of cinnamon, cloves, pepper and precious stones. What I seek from thy country is gold, silver, coral…” The European states (Portugal, Holland, France and England) rushed to Kerala to supply it to him. (Had not these states been able to loot the precious metals of the Americas to exchange for Kerala’s spices, the trade with India would have bankrupted them, for the Europeans had nothing of their own that the East desired.)

 

In 1341, a great flood swept over the coast of central Kerala, creating a wasteland of alluvial deposits where once ancient Muziris, western India’s greatest seaport, was located. But that same storm carved out of the land a great natural harbor barely 35 miles south of Muziris. In short order, this port, Cochin, became the hub of India’s west coast sea trade. The profile of Fort Cochin’s waterfront with its residential buildings, churches, warehouses, trading companies’ headquarters, commercial establishments and the enormous cantilevered, Chinese fishing nets looks today very much as it did in the 17th, 18th and 19th centuries. Here where the spicy wealth of India reached the sea, Indian rulers and the colonial powers vied for commercial and military advantage.

 

Here also, immigrants from the Middle East (Jews and Muslims), Africa and Europe settled to take advantage of the opportunities created by this concentration of wealth. The city is composed of narrow spits of land that jut out into a wide bay, and one of them, Fort Cochin, remains as it was, a “colonial” spice trading port, a living museum. There is a palace built in the 16th century by the Portuguese and gifted to the Raja of Cochin and then rebuilt and re-gifted by the Dutch. It contains a remarkable series of murals of Hindu mythological scenes. Also built in that century is the Jewish synagogue. With a population of around 4000 at its peak, the so-called white Jews, who spoke fluent Malayalam (the language of Kerala), were lynchpins in the spice trade and received local as well as Dutch and English patronage. (There was also a community of “black” Jews who came to Kerala perhaps as early as the time of King Solomon (ca. 1030 BC). The synagogue, a beautiful light and airy building, has 18th-century blue ceramic Cantonese tiles on its floor, each hand painted with a different design. There are also two notable churches and the fascinating Chinese fishing nets, great cantilevered contraptions introduced by Chinese traders in the 14th century.

We explore Fort Cochin on foot and attend a performance of traditional Kerala dance.

We stay in the heart of Fort Cochin

Le Colonial Heritage Hotel.

 

Thursday, Friday and Saturday, 22, 23 and 24 January – Mumbai (Bombay) by air

We take a midday flight from Cochin to Mumbai. Situated on India’s west coast on what were once seven islands, the name Mumbai is derived from Mumbadevi, patron goddess of a caste of fisherfolk, the area’s original inhabitants. Hindus, Muslims, Christians and Parsis (Zoroastrians) all have a major presence here. Mumbai is today India’s throbbing and vibrant commercial capital and still a stately colonial city.

 

We explore the leafy streets of the Fort, the well-preserved colonial heritage area of town with its beautiful neo-Gothic buildings of British trading houses, Bombay University, and Victoria Railway Station, affectionately known as “VT,” now a World Heritage site. The vast colonial Gothic railway station has richly carved buttresses, domes, turrets, spires and stained glass windows.

 

From the Gateway of India — a triumphal arch built to commemorate the visit of King George V in 1911 — we board a private boat and cruise for an hour to an island, Elephanta, where rock-cut caves carved between the 5th and 8th centuries AD contain remarkable sculptures depicting the god Shiva and his consort Parvati. Emerging from a recess in the back wall of the vast main cave is a 20-foot high image of three-faced Shiva. Its central face, stone become animate, expresses the fullness of absolute knowledge that is peace. This is one of the great masterpieces of world art.

 

We stay in executive sea-facing rooms at the Hotel Sea Palace, a boutique hotel on the sea front.

 

Saturday, 25 January – Depart India

Check out is at noon.

 

The price of the 2015 South India trip is $5990 per person (single supplement $1500) and it includes all accommodation (with attached bath), all meals, mineral water and soft drinks, entrance fees and admissions, land travel in A/C buses or cars, the flight from Cochin to Mumbai, boat rides, all airport transfers and is based on double occupancy and a group size of 10 members. Carol and Martin guide you throughout the trip.